Pink jerseys in the bookstore, nuns as rectors and girls going to class are familiar sights to Notre Dame students today, but women 40 years ago fought for these privileges — and they’re not about to let today’s students forget it.A group of Notre Dame alumnae established the “Thanking Father Ted Foundation” to thank University President Emeritus Fr. Theodore Hesburgh, for admitting women since 1972.The foundation’s book, “Thanking Father Ted: Thirty-Five Years of Notre Dame Coeducation,” describes the triumphs and challenges the first women students faced.Female incoming freshmen will receive a copy of the book during Freshman Orientation.The early years of Notre Dame coeducation were certainly rocky, alumnae said.Anne Thompson, NBC’s Chief Environmental Affairs Correspondent and 1979 alumna, remembers the early struggles.“My dad went to Notre Dame and he raised all four of us kids to believe we could do anything,” she said. “I went to Notre Dame believing that, and I encountered for the first time the belief that I couldn’t do something because of my gender.”Even after she graduated, Thompson fought the assumption that a girl could not be a Notre Dame graduate.“I spent 10 years telling people that I didn’t go to Saint Mary’s,” Thompson said.Even a few years later, women at Notre Dame were not yet completely at home in the male-dominated school.Anne Giffels, the foundation treasurer and a 1981 alumna, took a number of classes where women were in the minority.“You were very aware that you were a woman,” she said.The transition to a coeducational Notre Dame was rough on administrators as well as students.In an interview published in the “Thanking Father Ted” book, Hesburgh described how he took criticism for nearly every decision he made, from not merging with Saint Mary’s College to insisting on single-sex dorms.“I wanted women to have some downtime of their own,” Hesburgh said of that last decision. “As I see it, there are times when women want to get in their PJ’s, sit on the bed and talk women talk.”Hesburgh’s understanding of “women talk” came from growing up with three sisters. Their influence was one reason he made Notre Dame co-educational, Hesburgh said.“My life is a lot richer because I was not just formed by my mother and father but by [my sisters],” Hesburgh said in the book. “I didn’t have to have a big picture drawn for me to know that if Notre Dame had one big failing, it was the fact that it was only addressing half of the Catholic Church.”After the integration of women at Notre Dame, Hesburgh made a point of making Notre Dame’s new daughters feel welcomed.Giffels said she would often to go the Grotto late at night and would see Hesburgh.“He would stop to chat,” she said. “It made me feel very much a part of the Notre Dame community.”Giffels was also confident that despite the criticism, Hesburgh made the right choice.“Having women at Notre Dame has really made it a better place,” she said.Thompson, meanwhile, said she thrived as a student, in spite of some initial prejudice. She found professors who believed in her and drove her to succeed.“My ability to get into Notre Dame provided me with tremendous opportunities I wouldn’t have had otherwise,” she said.As director and treasurer of the Thanking Father Ted Foundation, with accounts of their Notre Dame years appearing in the “Thanking Father Ted” book, Thompson and Giffels share their love for their alma mater while reminding today’s women students of just how lucky they are.“It doesn’t even occur to the female students today that someone would not take them seriously,” Giffels said. “And I think that’s a very good thing.”Thompson said today’s campus dynamic is what Hesburgh had in mind 40 years ago.“Female students are not there to fulfill a quota system but because they are the best and the brightest,” she said.Today, Thompson is still reaping the benefits of her Notre Dame education.“Your Notre Dame education gets better every day after graduation,” Thompson said. “I appreciate it more now than I ever did then.”And Thompson knows who she has to thank for that opportunity. Her work with “Thanking Father Ted” is her chance to give back to the man who gave her – and all Notre Dame women – a chance to be a part of the University.“I could spend the rest of my life saying ‘Thank you,’” Thompson said. “And it wouldn’t be enough.”
At this week’s Council of Representatives (COR) meeting, members were given a presentation on the Committee for Sexual Assault Prevention’s (CSAP) online site as well as the upcoming Sexual Assault Awareness Week. Senior Mariah McGrogan, co-chair of the gender issues committee and a CSAP member, said the site offers a collection of resources for survivors looking for the next step in dealing with the assault. “As a part of student government’s Sexual Assault Awareness Week, we’re trying to raise awareness of the CSAP website, which is the most centralized location for all the information you would possibly need about sexual assault,” McGrogan said. “There’s a page for victims and survivors who’ve been sexually assaulted and it walks you through the process of reporting a sexual assault.” McGrogan said the site highlights the different ways victims can report a sexual assault. “There are also two ways that you can report a crime when you decide to go forward for disciplinary punishment of the attacker. The first is through University proceedings, which would be a ResLife trial,” she said. “The second would be an off-campus pursuit of disciplinary action which would be through the prosecutor’s office as well as the police department.” McGrogan also described the events planned for student government’s Sexual Awareness Week, starting next Monday. “On Tuesday, there will be a dinner in LaFortune from 6-8 p.m., free and open to the public. It includes a bunch of speakers who will be talking about sexual assault and how sexual assault affects members of our community,” she said. “It’s not just for survivors of sexual assault or people who know survivors, but it’s for the entire community to show that this is really something Notre Dame cares about.” McGrogan said there would be information tables set up during the week in LaFortune, the dining halls and the Joyce Center staffed by student government, CSAP, Men Against Violence, Feminist Voice and the Gender Relations Council. Outside of informational programming, she said there would be religious and social events later in the week. “On Wednesday, there’s a mass of healing that will take place in Dillon Hall,” she said. “On Friday, there is a “You’re Not Alone” reception. … it is going to be an outlet that student clubs, organizations, departments and offices on campus can get involved with sexual assault by making a quilt square for a quilt that will be hung up on campus … just to show that Notre Dame won’t stand for sexual violence on this campus.”
While many students caught up on sleep or their favorite TV shows over Fall Break, some seniors traveled abroad to get a more personal perspective on their theses topics. Senior Pete Elliott, a political science and economics double major, visited Belfast, Northern Ireland. While there, he conducted research for his thesis on policing and insurgency during The Troubles, a period of national ethno-political conflict in Northern Ireland. “I’m studying the effects of certain actions undertaken by the police in Northern Ireland to combat the terrorism at the time,” Elliott said. “[I’m] seeing how the tactics they used to fight terrorism played a role in shaping the conflict and how it played a role in the next 30 years.” Elliott visited the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland to digitize police records. “These would be weekly status reports, statistics,” he said. “If you get data about certain areas in Northern Ireland, Belfast specifically, you can map the police by their own documentation and see if there are any interesting trends over time. So it’s seeing what sort of information we can mine from that data and how that can help us understand the conflict in a more rigorous way.” Elliott also visited Relatives for Justice, a victims’ advocacy group in Belfast. The group attempts to compensate people that were wronged during The Troubles. “They collected statements from people who had been taken up by the police,” Elliott said. “It highlights a lot of institutional abuse that was sort of downplayed.” Elliott hopes to use the information he collected to analyze the interplay between the state and the social movement during The Troubles. “I have to go through it and see exactly what I’m going to use, but the goal is to map a trend in policing in certain areas in Belfast during the period from 1968 to 1971,” he said. Senior Lea Malewitz, a double major in French and Arabic, travelled to Paris with a dual purpose. Malewitz’s main focus was to prepare for an art exhibit called “DIGNITY,” a photo exhibit about human dignity issues, set to debut at the Snite Museum of Art in January. While there, however, she also gathered information for her thesis on the portrayal of the Arab-Israeli conflict in French literature. Malewitz visited the Museum of Jewish Art and History, the Arabic World Institute and La Cité nationale de l’histoire de l’immigration, a museum of immigrant history, she said. At the Museum of Jewish Art and History, Malewitz found an exhibit that shed light on Jewish identity in France. “One woman portrayed was quoted as saying that she felt Jewish identity in France was revitalized when the Pieds-Noirs, the French settlers of Algeria, returned to France after the Algerian War of Independence because they weren’t ashamed to assert their Jewish identity,” she said. Malewitz said the perspectives on Judaism, France and northern Africa held by Jews in Arab-dominated French colonies especially intrigued her. “I encountered the same idea, described as a revival of Judaism in France after the arrival of the Sephardic Jews, the next day at the Museum of Immigration,” Malewitz said. “I am interested to see if this revival is reflected in French and francophone literature as I continue to do research for my thesis.” Elliott said the opportunity to research abroad was an exceptionally valuable asset for his thesis. “It’s really exciting because I feel like I’m using innovative sources that a lot of distinguished scholars on the subjects haven’t gotten to use, and I wouldn’t have gotten to do that if I hadn’t been to Belfast personally,” he said. “Plus, it’s invaluable to see the area I’m writing on firsthand.”
The Roman Missal, the book of Mass prayer and ritual, is being given a new English translation intended to prepare the Church for an era of liturgical renewal, the chaplain of the College of Saint Mary Magdalen said at a Wednesday evening lecture. Fr. Neil J. Roy said the new translation will take effect Nov. 27, the first Sunday of Advent. “The liturgy exercises a formative influence on us as Catholic Christians, so I think it’s very wise of you to take the time to understand what is taking place and how we might benefit from it,” he said. The principles governing the updated translation of the Missal appear in the Vatican’s document “Liturgiam authenticam,” which was issued in 2001, Roy said. “The instruction demands precise theological and liturgical language to express theological truths in the context of the Sacred Liturgy,” Roy said. “The liturgy must express what the Church believes.” “Liturgiam authenticam” urges prudence and attention to prayer, as well as an exact translation of the Latin text that is free from ideological influence, Roy said. The translation is not creative innovation, but rather, a faithful and accurate rendering of the original text. “[The new translation provides] a sort of formal equivalence rather than a dynamic equivalence [to the Latin text],” Roy said. “The new translation does succeed in observing the principles that the original text must be translated integrally.” The changes also provide a clearer sense of sacredness and a greater openness to mystery, Roy said. One change applies to the response to the priest’s greeting of peace. Mass attendees will now respond “and with your spirit,” rather than the current “and also with you.” Roy said the new wording reflects the priest’s spirit of ordination. Roy said the Church will be referred to using feminine pronouns instead of “it.” This change identifies the Church as a dynamic institution rather than an inanimate object. “Now She [the Church] has a certain life, a certain quality, a certain character,” Roy said. Roy said the new translation also places greater focus on the role of music in the liturgy. “We should think about singing the Mass, rather than singing at the Mass,” he said. “It’s good to chant the Mass as a practice, so you’ll find that in the new Missal. You’ll have more opportunity for that.” Reactions to the new English translation have varied greatly, Roy said. While some parishes gradually integrated the changes into the Mass, others are waiting until the Nov. 27 deadline in the hopes that the Holy See will revoke the changes. Roy said he thinks the changes are beneficial as some meaning was lost in the 1970 English translation of the Missal. “Let’s use these [new words] for a while and let’s test them,” he said. “Let’s see how the Church grows with them. Liturgy is formative. There are good things that will come.”
Anne Arnason News Writer Peter Bacon Hales, a professor emeritus at the University of Illinois-Chicago and an expert on American culture, stressed the interplay of culture and games in the post-Cold War world at a lecture Thursday in DeBartolo Hall. “We can discover broader cultural functions that video games play, just as we did the same when we looked at television, popular music, movies and even literature,” Hales said. Hales said one of the first video games to exist was “Creepy Cave Adventure,” a simple code that responds to “yes” or “no” answers. He said there were two appeals to this game. “First, it offered a fantasy escape to a wonderful crazy world, and the other is that it brought you to control this world,” Hales said. Once technology progressed enough to allow for more complex games, the scenarios began to center more and more around nuclear warfare, Hales said. He said this shift can be attributed to the post-Cold War paranoia of an atomic holocaust. The goal of the game “Balance of Power,” released in 1985, was to avoid nuclear war at all cost by developing a disarmament model, Hales said. “It hoped to awaken a generation of youthful technocrats that would someday be members of the war college,” he said. Hales said if a player lost “Balance of Power,” a message was displayed on the screen instead of a gory virtual explosion. “There was a fear that games were actually rewarding failure with spectacular effects of explosions and death,” he said. Hales, an avid gamer himself, recognizes the tantalizing effect of this sort of reward for failure. He said at the end of the “Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 4” gameplay scenario, the character controlled by the gamer dies after an atomic bomb strike to a display of exciting, visually stimulating graphics that give the gamer an adrenaline rush. “The first time I got to that point in modern warfare, the hair on the back of my neck stood up, you hear your own heart beat stop, you go into tachycardia and you fall,” Hales said. “It’s absolutely shocking.” Hales said the sense of reward that comes from fictional death and destruction raises questions about the morality of war-inspired video games. The consequences of actions the player makes most clearly indicate the values the game promotes, he said. “The consequences are not moral; they are deliberately flat,” Hales said. Hales said this means gamers do not sense what is right or wrong, but rather, simply care about what will come next. Another controversy raised by the rapid increase of video game popularity is the culture of online communities, Hales said. He said he recognizes three different phenomena in these online social circles. There is a group concerned with achieving immense prowess, proving that they have figured out the game better than anyone else, Hales said. He said another group fights for strategic supremacy, vying for a sort of intellectual respect comparable to that given to chess players. “[For this second group], it’s not about killing, it’s about checkmate in 12 moves,” Hales said. Hales said the third group seeks to create genuine communities. “I do not believe the virtual community is, in fact, an impoverished one,” Hales said. I honestly believe that it’s a quite rich one.”
The Student Coalition for Immigration Advocacy (SCIA) will host the first ever ComUNIDAD, an immigration conference Sunday from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. at the Hesburgh Center for International Studies, which will focus on Latino immigration, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA), new immigration laws and policies and local immigration services.“Being from Arizona, a border state, where the topic of immigration has always been on the forefront, I became interested in empowering the Latino community,” Jessica Pedroza, a sophomore SCIA Officer said.Senior Juan Rangel, a Latino Studies major and the founder of SCIA, said the club initially had the idea for the conference in April and planned it over the summer.Rangel said he talked with La Casa de Amistad, a charitable organization in South Bend that provides services for Hispanic populations and is one of the sponsors of ComUNIDAD, about the idea and also consulted one of his professors.The other sponsors of ComUNIDAD include the Institute for Latino Studies, Center for Social Concerns, Campus Ministry, Latino Honors Society, Spanish Club, Latino Student Alliance, College Democrats, and the Hispanic Alumni of Notre Dame, Pedroza said.“[The sponsors] have mostly supported us financially,” Pedroza said. “[We] have invited their members to volunteer or attend the conference. We appreciate … their contributions in making this conference a reality.”“The major task [in the preparation process] is promotion,” Rangel said. “It is really hard to push this event among local community members. It is brand new. People are a little uneasy to come to campus as it is.”ComUNIDAD will provide free food and free day care for kids. Transportation will also be available from St. Adalbert Parish starting at 9 a.m. and back on the day of the event.Rangel said he expects about 100 people to come, but it is hard to obtain an accurate number right now.“There is no need to register, but Facebook RSVPs help us get some idea about how many people will attend,” Pedroza said.The first event of the conference, a keynote panel discussion, will feature director of the Institute for Latino Studies Tim Matovina, Saint Mary’s senior Dara Marquez, Holy Cross College junior Evelyn Gonzalez and immigrant advocate Jesusa Rivera.Rangel and Pedroza said the event will also include an entertainment session during the lunch break with performances from Mariachi ND, Coro Primavera de Nuestra Señora and Ballet Folklorico Azul Y Oro.“The most distinctive feature of ComUNIDAD I’d recommend to other people would be the community aspect we are trying to foster between Notre Dame students and community members,” Pedroza said, “All Sunday we will be learning together, eating together, watching performances and going to Mass together. And it will all be in English and Spanish.“The conference will also serve as a way to inform students about what’s going on with immigration. Most of all, though, I believe it’s about creating ‘comunidad’ and caring about one another, social justice and treating everyone with human dignity regardless of documentation”Rangel said many of the staff members on the preparation committee for the event are sophomores and juniors, and he hopes to see the event eventually become one of the traditions in Notre Dame.“SCIA in its first couple of years of being an official club has really been instrumental in bringing the immigration issue to light on campus,” Pedroza said, “ComUNIDAD is our biggest event this semester, and next semester, we are excited about hosting another Immigration week, which includes prayer, performances, debates and more.”Tags: ComUNIDAD, Immigration, Institute for Latino Studies, La Casa de Amistad, SCIA, Student Coalition for Immigration Advocacy
Notre Dame is now home to a chapter of Spoon University, an online magazine for food recipes, restaurant recommendations and more.“At Spoon ND, our goal is to put out super fun and informative content that will change the way college students think about food,” Kristin Brennan, the site’s editor-in-chief, said. “We cover everything from the best local restaurants and simple recipes that can be made in a dorm room to how to recover from a hangover and cook and eat healthfully. We hope that our content will encourage students to eat and drink in good company and view food as more than just sustenance.”Spoon University Notre Dame’s chapter was founded in March by junior Channing Foster, who is the site’s marketing director. The idea to bring Spoon University to Notre Dame came from her experiences at home for break at Washington D.C., where Spoon University has a strong presence among local universities.“I went home and thought, ‘There’s no reason Notre Dame shouldn’t have a chapter,’” Foster said. “So I e-mailed the woman in charge of growth at Spoon, and she gave me a call a day later. We talked about it, and it seemed like Notre Dame was a great place to start a chapter.”Spoon University was first started as a print magazine at Northwestern in 2009, moved online and expanded to the national level in 2014, Foster said, and the process of bringing a chapter to Notre Dame was a long, intensive one, involving student support and feedback from the staff of the national magazine.“There’s actually a much more demanding process than even I realized it was going to be, but it’s cool — once you went through it all, you really know it’s a legit organization,” Foster said.To begin the formal process of starting a chapter, Foster had a week to get 400 signatures on a petition to expand the site to Notre Dame, she said.“There was a lot of ‘stealing’ a lot of e-mails from listservs, mass e-mailing the athletics department and a lot of tweeting, but we managed to get over 500 signatures, which is great,” she said. “Once you have the signatures … then they open a live application [for writers and editors], which was the hardest part as it was very intensive. You had to write a sample story, you have to explain why you’d be a great candidate for Spoon, and you had to upload your résumé.”Foster said she chose the position of marketing director, the national Spoon University team chose the editor-in-chief and creative director and the new Notre Dame leadership chose the rest of the staff. Brennan said the hard work of launching the site three weeks after the editorial staff was hired paid off as reception to the new chapter far exceeded expectations.“The launch was really successful,” Brennan said, “Our goal was to have every article to have over 500 page views, and we have at least three that went over a thousand and one was at 1,500 [pageviews] just in the first couple of days. We wanted 500 views in a week, and in one or two days a couple of them gone over 1,000.”Brennan said the team is still trying to spread the word even more. They plan to give out food during finals week and continue to aggressively market Spoon University. They will also plan for even greater growth in both manpower and scope, taking on more writers, editors and photographers and accepting opinion pieces on topics going beyond food.
Erin Rice This August, computer science major Tera Joyce will head to Seattle. She’ll be a software developer for Microsoft, writing code for the Office 365 platform.“I think the position will be really exciting but testing,” she said. “I am definitely excited for the new adventure but nervous about the challenges I am sure I will have to face.”Joyce is one of many Notre Dame seniors entering the workforce after graduation. Nationally, the job market is friendlier — employers are 9.6 percent more likely to hire new college graduates than they were last year, according to the National Association of Colleges and Employers, and this is no different for Notre Dame graduates, director of Notre Dame’s Career Center Hilary Flanagan said.Each year, the Career Center and the Office of Strategic Planning and Institutional Research conduct a “First Destination” survey on what members of each class do after they graduate. Data for the class of 2015 will not be available for several more months, but Flanagan said she does not anticipate any major deviations from previous years.58 percent of 2014 graduates, for example, secured full-time employment after graduation, according to the survey, though percentages vary widely from college to college. Nearly 28 percent chose graduate or professional school, eight percent participated in a service program, two percent went into the military and two percent were still seeking employment. Flanagan said Notre Dame graduates differ from college graduates nationally both in terms of what they decide to do and where they decide to do it.“We tend to have a greater percentage of students who commit to service experiences as their first destination than the national average,” Flanagan said. “I would not anticipate a change on that data point. Our graduates also tend to spread out geographically and throughout industries in more diverse patterns than the national average. This would also likely stay the same this year.”Many seniors seek the help of the Career Center’s services, Flanagan said.“Typical results in the senior survey conducted by Institutional Research show that over 80 percent of seniors use the Career Center for their job searches,” Flanagan said. “Of course, the majority of seniors connect with our services in some way, whether they are conducting a job or graduate school search.”Joyce said the hiring process with Microsoft began at Notre Dame with the Career Center’s Engineering Industry Day in September.“I applied for the position there and got my first interview on campus a few weeks later,” she said. “After the local interviews, I flew out to Seattle to do an on-site interview with the team I will be working for.”Other graduating seniors plan to pursue a postgraduate degree in order to improve their job prospects. Jiatai Zhang, who majored in accounting and mathematics, will attend a three-semester Master of Science in computational finance program at Carnegie Mellon University.Zhang, who is from Shenzhen, China, said he chose the program partly because of its strong placement rate in the financial services industry, but also because he will apply for an H-1B visa after he graduates. The temporary visa allows people to work in the U.S. in “specialty occupations” like science or technology if an employer sponsors them, and those with graduate degrees have a better chance of getting a visa.“Due to the H-1B lottery process, only 25 percent to 30 percent of international students who found jobs will be able to work in the U.S.,” Zhang said. “The odds are better for students who have Masters or PhDs, due to [U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services] policies. The fact that the program falls into the STEM category — science, technology, engineering, mathematics — also helps with the visa process.”Zhang said the program will help him both find and keep a job.“The program has an established brand name among financial services professionals, so that part really helps,” he said. “Also, the skills taught through the program are very practical and used in the real world. In other words, you won’t find a course useless when you start working in the real world.”While Zhang is going to graduate school in order to get a job, others are getting jobs in order to prepare for further education. Brenna Gautam, who majored in history and peace studies, said she will work for the geopolitical consulting firm Wikistrat for the next year while she applies to law school. Gautam said she found out about the organization, which bills itself as a “crowdsourced consulting” company, while she was working in Washington, D.C. last summer.“It was very much word of mouth,” she said. “After that, I read up on the company, reached out to them online and started finding out more through one of their recruiters.”Gautam said she will edit policy recommendations and analyses, as well as participate in “crowdsourced simulations,” which help government agencies predict and plan for various political, economic and military scenarios.“Participation in the simulations requires researching the issue and contributing written analyses, which are then aggregated into a final analysis,” Gautam said. “So it will change on a day-to-day basis, depending on what the geopolitical issue being examined is. For example, they just conducted a simulation on Europe’s immigration challenges — but it will mostly be researching, writing, and editing.”Gautam said Wikistrat appealed to her because it presented a variety of perspectives on international issues.“I like that they tackle a range of geopolitical issues because it will give me more experience in areas that I’m not that familiar with,” she said. “But I also get some preference as to which projects I work on. … I want to focus on the Balkans, Middle East and the U.S.”Gautam said she will apply to law schools this fall, and she is considering working with the Center for Undergraduate Scholarly Engagement to apply for a Fulbright scholarship to go to Kosovo. Her goal is to go into international law.“I’m very interested in space law and cyber law and have been speaking to advisers and mentors about post-law school opportunities in these fields,” she said. “Ideally, a dream job would be legal advising in those fields through the U.S. government.”Tags: Commencement 2015, employment, jobs, Notre Dame Career Center
Tags: Hesburgh Center for International Studies Sebastián Mazzuca, assistant professor at Johns Hopkins, delivered a lecture on the relationship between state formation and economic failure in South America on Monday in the Hesburgh Center for International Studies.In mainstream history, state formation in Latin America is essentially about fragmentation, Mazzuca said. “If you compare two maps, compare the map of colonial Latin America to contemporary Latin America, there’s an obvious change in number, in size,” he said. “There were five political units in colonial Latin America, and there are 20-plus countries today.” The income per capita in Latin American countries is a fifth of the income of advanced economies, Mazzuca said. “The question is, ‘Why does it exist, why is it there?’” he said. “Of course, the gap began more than 200 years ago. It began small, but it began and remains.” Intermediate maps provide a fuller story, Mezzuca said. “If you look at intermediate maps, you will see that in the very first decades after independence, even in what today is Argentina, you have at least four distinct political units,” he said. “So in between these two things, you have a different trajectory, which is atomisation first and then reaggregation. It is not a history of fragmentation, it is a more complicated story — it’s not that complicated, but it’s more interesting and more complicated.” Mezzuca said countries in South America that have the potential to become advanced economies with sustained growth but failed were “perverse combinations” of subnational regions. “The second question, which has to do with state formation, is, ‘Why did state formation in South America result in the creation of economical dysfunctional national arenas?’” he said. “Although most state formation in early modern Europe were military conquests … [in South America] you also don’t see economic mergers, which is another path to state formation. It is neither a military conquest nor economic merger, but it is actually a process of coalition building.” State formation from the 1840s through the 1860s led to the creation of countries as dysfunctional territorial matches, Mezzuca said, which then resulted in economic failures in these countries. Examining “quasi takeoffs” in South American countries provide a shortcut to understanding 200 years of complicated economic history, Mezzuca said. “The quasi takeoffs are the moment in which some countries were really likely to start sustained economic growth, or they initiated it and then reversed,” he said. From 1817 to 1903, Argentina experienced a period of sustained economic growth, Mezzuca said. “It went from 55, 60 percent of the income per capita of rich countries, and I mean France, the UK, England and Australia, to 98 percent the income of those countries,” he said. “It became an advanced country by 1908, but not only that — it stayed there for another twenty-two years and a half. … It stayed there, and then it reversed back in a sustained fashion until it’s back to 40 percent of the income of advanced countries.” From 1950 to 1970, Brazil experienced a period of economic growth, Mezzuca said, and from 2002 to 2022 there has been another opportunity for economic growth. “It is really too tell. We don’t know if anything’s going to happen. We are almost sure Chile is going to make it into the income bracket of the advanced economies,” he said. “It has been growing faster, by half a percent faster than advanced economies for 25 years already. That’s really a lot — it’s very hard to derail Chile from that.” Mezzuca said the first emerging market in Latin America in the 1870s had many short-lived booms. Two regions had “winning tickets” for the commodity lottery and the potential to be growth engines for entire continent. “The Paraiba Valley, is one, that’s in the Sao Paolo area in Brazil,” he said. “The main product there is coffee. Of course, coffee, you do not know for sure if it’s a winning ticket ticket … but Brazil, coffee production was so big — actually it was a quasi-monopoly — that it could create price-setting mechanisms.” The Pampas in Argentina was another area that had a “winning ticket” in the commodity lottery, Mezzuca said, and experienced exceptional growth. “There it was not coffee, it was wool, it’s wheat, it’s beef,” he said. “There was a string of booms, and they were sustained booms.” Economists believe innovation and investment equal growth, Mezzuca said. There are fundamental answers, which include culture, geography and institutions, but have a serious flaw in that there is competition among the factors instead of integration and interaction. “There’s nothing systematic. So that to me is the main limitation, so we’re trying to combine stuff a little bit, combine classes of economic causes,” he said. The answer to the question of economic failure in South America is perverse combinations of subnational regions, Mezzuca said. “The first reason why countries can be perverse combinations [is that] of course, national income level is an average of subnational income levels,” he said. “While this is sort of trivial, but it points to the fact that in Latin America income inequality is very bad in terms of social groups and classes, but there is a huge inequality across regions.” There are also economic mechanisms at play, Mezzuca said, if there are countries that contain “backwards” and “dynamic” regions. “The dynamic sector exports and then the exports from the dynamic sector produce an influx of hard currency donors that overvalues the exchange rate, and that overvaluation pushes the other regions into a complete lack of competitiveness — they cannot be competitive because of the exchange rate that’s given by the dynamic regions,” he said.Mezzuca said political mechanisms are the key contributor to economic failure in South American countries. “It’s a two-sided thing. One is the exploitation of the center by the periphery, so the surplus of the center can be transferred to the periphery at a high cost, in terms of sustainability,” he said. “So there’s an inefficient transfer of resources from the center to the periphery. … Second, not only the center gets weakened, but also, the periphery gets weakened in the long run.” Mezzuca said another political geography was possible for South America, and said new evidence suggests that for a time, Argentina could be an “obvious yes,” after the creation of the Argentine Republic in 1861. “A few months later, after what is considered to be the moment of unification, [the Spanish consul in Montevideo] wrote to his boss, wrote to the crown in Spain, to say that, ‘I foresee partition and secession within Argentine Confederation,’” he said. Comparative history depicts Brazil as the strongest South American state in terms of post-independence secession risks, Mezzuca said, but even independent Brazil was contested. Mezzuca said local division and national unification can actually help aggregate an entire country. “Division within a subnational reason drives the two factions within that region to compete for allies, and maybe under some conditions that search for allies in subaggregating regions into a national arena,” he said. There is a clear trade off as local factions search for external allies, Mezzuca said, and trade economic development for political power.
The Campus Crossroads project, a three-building expansion built around Notre Dame Stadium, will open to the public during Kicks and Flicks Week, a series of events held from Aug. 20 through 25, the University announced in a press release Thursday.Observer File Photo Attendees will be able to tour Corbett Family Hall, O’Neill Hall and the Duncan Student Center — the three buildings accounting for the majority of renovation, according to the release.Additionally, the New and Gold Game will kick off the unveiling, consisting of a Notre Dame football scrimmage and performances from the Notre Dame Marching Band and cheerleaders.According to the press release, tours of the renovated stadium and new buildings will take place from 2 to 6 p.m. on a first-come, first-served basis Aug. 20, and gates will open for the 3:30 p.m. scrimmage at 2 p.m. Seating for the New and Gold Game will be general admission and no tailgating will be allowed before or during the game.The week will conclude with “Flick on the Field,” featuring a screening of “Rudy” on the stadium’s new video board — which will be open to visitors and returning students — Aug. 25. On-field seating will be available for students from Notre Dame, Saint Mary’s and Holy Cross during the movie, while seating will be general admission in the stadium for other attendees. The stadium gates will open at 6 p.m. for the event, and the screening will begin at 7:30 p.m.Tags: Campus Crossroads Project, Corbett Family Hall, duncan student center, Notre Dame Stadium, O’Neill Hall