Are brains shrinking to make us smarter? Citation: Farming to blame for our shrinking size and brains (2011, June 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-farming-blame-size-brains.html A fossil of modern humans, dating back 160,000 years. Photo © 2000 David L. Brill, Brill Atlanta While the change to agriculture would have provided a plentiful crop of food, the limiting factor of farming may have created vitamin and mineral deficiencies and resulted in a stunted growth. Early Chinese farmers ate cereals such as rice which lacks the B vitamin niacin which is essential for growth.Agriculture however does not explain the reduction in brain size. Lahr believes that this may be a result of the energy required to maintain larger brains. The human brain accounts for one quarter of the energy the body uses. This reduction in brain size however does not mean that modern humans are less intelligent. Human brains have evolved to work more efficiently and utilize less energy. (PhysOrg.com) — At Britain’s Royal Society, Dr. Marta Lahr from Cambridge University’s Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies presented her findings that the height and brain size of modern-day humans is shrinking. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Looking at human fossil evidence for the past 200,000 years, Lahr looked at the size and structure of the bones and skulls found across Europe, Africa and Asia. What they discovered was that the largest Homo sapiens lived 20,000 to 30,000 years ago with an average weight between 176 and 188 pounds and a brain size of 1,500 cubic centimeters.They discovered that some 10,000 years ago however, size started getting smaller both in stature and in brain size. Within the last 10 years, the average human size has changed to a weight between 154 and 176 pounds and a brain size of 1,350 cubic centimeters.While large size remained static for close to 200,000 years, researchers believe the reduction in stature can be connected to a change from the hunter-gatherer way of life to that of agriculture which began some 9,000 years ago. The fossilized skull of an adult male hominid unearthed in 1997 from a site near the village of Herto, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. The skull, reconstructed by UC Berkeley paleoanthropologist Tim White, is slightly larger than the most extreme adult male humans today, but in other ways is more similar to modern humans than to earlier hominids, such as the neanderthals. White and his team concluded that the 160,000 year old hominid is the oldest known modern human, which they named Homo sapiens idaltu. Image © J. Matternes
(Phys.org) — Researchers have known for some time that young male fruit flies learn over time to bypass females that have already mated with someone else, but until now, no one really understood the mechanism involved. Now a team from Austria has discovered, as they write in their paper published in the journal Nature, that the when male fruit flies mate with females, they leave behind a bit of pheromone that serves as a signal to other males letting them know that further mating is futile. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nature Citation: Researchers discover how fruit flies learn to bypass already mated females (2012, August 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-fruit-flies-bypass-females.html To come to these conclusions, the team ran a series of experiments to conclusively demonstrate exactly what was going on with the fruit flies. To begin, they first isolated the pheromone they thought was involved, cVA. Pheromones are chemicals produced by an organism that are believed to serve a signaling purpose when they are noted by others. In studying the fruit flies, the team noted that small amounts of cVA were deposited onto to the bodies of females, by males, during mating.To find out if cVA was serving as a signal for other males, the researchers modified several of them to prevent them from being able to smell or sense the presence of cVA. Those males then attempted to mate with females that had already mated, in essence demonstrating an inability to learn to tell the difference between mated and unmated females.In another experiment, the researchers genetically altered several female fruit flies to cause them to produce cVA on their own. This caused all the males (that had learned to do so) to bypass them.These two experiments convinced the team that it was the depositing of cVA on the females that signaled to latter males that the female was already mated and thus attempting to do so would be futile; they should instead move on. But that still didn’t explain how the young males learned to recognize the signal. To uncover that mystery, the team looked at dopamine levels in the brains of the fruit flies.In humans, dopamine is a pleasure chemical, it’s what drives cocaine addiction. But in insects such as the fruit fly, dopamine has been shown to be involved in learning. As the young males come into contact with the females for mating purposes, dopamine levels fluctuate, causing them to learn to associate rejection with the sensing of the cVa pheromone, which in turn leads them to avoid those already mated females to focus on the virgins instead.This bit of research shows that even the lowly fruit fly can learn based on environmental conditions and to adjust its behavior accordingly, which means, everything for them is not hard-wired. © 2012 Phys.org Researchers discover fruit fly aphrodisiac More information: Dopamine neurons modulate pheromone responses in Drosophila courtship learning, Nature (2012) doi:10.1038/nature11345AbstractLearning through trial-and-error interactions allows animals to adapt innate behavioural ‘rules of thumb’ to the local environment, improving their prospects for survival and reproduction. Naive Drosophila melanogaster males, for example, court both virgin and mated females, but learn through experience to selectively suppress futile courtship towards females that have already mated1. Here we show that courtship learning reflects an enhanced response to the male pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), which is deposited on females during mating and thus distinguishes mated females from virgins. Dissociation experiments suggest a simple learning rule in which unsuccessful courtship enhances sensitivity to cVA. The learning experience can be mimicked by artificial activation of dopaminergic neurons, and we identify a specific class of dopaminergic neuron that is critical for courtship learning. These neurons provide input to the mushroom body (MB) γ lobe, and the DopR1 dopamine receptor is required in MBγ neurons for both natural and artificial courtship learning. Our work thus reveals critical behavioural, cellular and molecular components of the learning rule by which Drosophila adjusts its innate mating strategy according to experience. Explore further
In addition to performing dynamic studies on the cloaks described in the paper, the scientists are now searching for new ways to cloak, as well as a method for introducing the cloaking concept into additional dimensions. “Our approach can help design strong materials in complex shapes without losing the performance of the initial material. We hope to use this approach in the engineering sciences to find a way to design complex architectures in a lightweight fashion – specifically in civil engineering and the automotive industry, where low weight and strong lattice-based materials will be, and in fact already are, a key future technology. For example,” Bückmann illustrates, “think about a door in a carbon-enforced car. Here one would directly find the right fiber directions to enforce the opening in the car without losing the car’s overall stiffness.” Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Citation: Occam’s razor redux: A simple mathematical approach to designing mechanical invisibility cloaks (2015, May 1) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-occam-razor-redux-simple-mathematical.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org Measured performance of a lattice-transformation cloak. Same as Fig. 2, but measured directly on polymer structures fabricated by a 3D printer. Photographs of the structures are shown in the left-hand-side column. Again, the large distortions introduced by the hole in the homogeneous lattice are dramatically reduced in presence of the cloak, i.e., the average relative error with respect to the reference case, Δ, decreases from 714% to 26% in good agreement with theory shown in Fig. 2. Parameters are: r1 =30 mm, r2 =60 mm, L=4 mm, a = √3 × L, w =0.4 mm, and W =1 mm. Credit: Bückmann T, Kadic M, Schittny R, Wegener M (2015) Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(16):4930-4934. An interesting limitation to the new approach – which is applied to the cloaking of a void in a lattice material – is that cloaking will never be perfect. “This is rather a general statement, as one needs to keep in mind that a perfect cloak is directly linked to material parameters that diverge,” Bückmann tells Phys.org. “This means if one would like to cloak an object, infinite materials parameters occur, such as an infinite mass at the inner cloaking radius – and this cannot be fulfilled in an actual experiment. One needs thus to consider how well an actual cloak performs, that is, Am I able to detect the imperfections, or do I care at all about them? This in turn depends on the problem one needs to solve, and cannot be answered in general.” In short, mathematically perfect cloaking is unavoidably connected with singular material parameters that just cannot be achieved in reality. More information: Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2015) 112(16):4930-4934, doi:10.1073/pnas.1501240112Related:1An elasto-mechanical unfeelability cloak made of pentamode metamaterials, Nature Communications (2014) 5:4130, doi:10.1038/ncomms5130 Images of samples and setup. Photographs of fabricated samples in the measurement setup including the Hooke’s springs that approximate constant pressure on the left- and right-hand side. From Upper to Lower: reference sample, sample with hole, and cloaking structure. Parameters are as in Figs. 2 and 5, i.e., r1 =30 mm, r2 =60 mm, L=4 mm, a = √3 × L, w =0.4 mm, and W =1 mm. Credit: Bückmann T, Kadic M, Schittny R, Wegener M (2015) Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(16):4930-4934. Researcher Tiemo Bückmann discussed the paper he and his colleagues published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, as well as the challenges they faced in developing their concept and conducting the resulting research. “The main challenge in devising our approach – that is, of directly transforming the lattice points of a 2D discrete lattice composed of a single constituent material while keeping the properties of the elements connecting the lattice unchanged – was actually to come up the concept and think about realizing it,” Bückmann tells Phys.org. “At first, we just used that concept as an example to illustrate the basic concepts of cloaking, since it was taking us quite some time to really think about realizing such a structure out of one material – but this then worked so nicely that it was surprising even to us.”Another issue: cloaking a void in an effective elastic material with respect to static uniaxial compression as an example of elastic–solid mechanics. “Our main problem here was, first of all, that the mathematical background for a material parameter transformation is extremely complex,” Bückmann notes. “This makes the design of such a cloak highly complex as well as extremely demanding on materials and their effective properties.” That said, the scientists found that these problems were all solved by their straightforward approach of simply transforming the lattice points rather than effective material properties. “This simplified the cloaking concept enormously, making it possible for us to create a cloak along these lines.” Direct lattice-transformation approach. (A) A hexagonal lattice with lattice constant a composed of identical Ohmic resistors with resistance R. The lumped resistors (upper half) can equivalently be replaced by double-trapezoidal conductive elements (lower half) with length L=a/√3 and widths w and W as defined in the magnifying glass. (B) The lattice points (black dots) of the lattice in A are subject to a coordinate transformation. To keep the resistors R identical, while locally changing the length from L to L’ and fixing w, the width W is changed to W’ as indicated in the magnifying glass. One can proceed equivalently in heat conduction, particle diffusion, electrostatics, and magnetostatics. For elastic solids in mechanics, the resistors can be replaced by linear Hooke’s springs. The width W in the corresponding microstructure is again adjusted to W’ to keep the Hooke’s spring constant D identical while changing the length from L to L’ and fixing w. Credit: Bückmann T, Kadic M, Schittny R, Wegener M (2015) Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(16):4930-4934. Mechanical cloaks of invisibility—without complicated mathematics Explore further Calculated performance of a lattice-transformation cloak. Constant pressure is exerted from the left- and right-hand side in each case. We compare the response of a homogeneous reference lattice (first row), the same finite lattice with a hole of radius r1 in the middle (second row), and the elastic cloak with inner radius r1 and outer radius r2 (third row) designed by direct lattice transformation. The (von Mises) stress is shown in the left column, the x component of the strain at the lattice points in the middle column, and the y component of the strain at the lattice points in the right column. We use a highly saturated false-color representation to exhibit all data on the same scale. The metamaterial structures (cf. Fig. 1) are shown underneath. The corresponding average relative error Δ of the strain vectors outside the cloak (i.e., for radii r >r2) with respect to the reference case is given on the right-hand side. The hole in the reference leads to large strains at the inner radius as well as outside of the cloak. Both aspects are dramatically improved by the cloak, Δ decreases by a factor of 34 from 738% to 22%. Parameters are: r1 =30mm, r2 =60mm, L=4 mm, a= √3 × L, w =0.4mm, and W =1mm. Credit: Bückmann T, Kadic M, Schittny R, Wegener M (2015) Mechanical cloak design by direct lattice transformation, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(16):4930-4934. , Nature Communications Metamaterials – engineered materials with properties not found in nature – have led to an astounding range of optical, acoustic, thermodynamic, two-dimensional solid mechanics, and other types of invisibility cloaks that render the cloaked object indistinguishable from the environment around them – but the ability to cloak three-dimensional solid mechanics has proven elusive. (Solid mechanics is the branch of continuum mechanics – which models materials as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles – that studies the behavior of solid materials, especially their motion and deformation under the action of forces, temperature changes, phase changes, and other external or internal agents.) Recently, however, scientists at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany – following their design last year of a so-called unfeelability cloak1 that hides (at this point small) 3D objects such that they cannot be physically detected – have demonstrated a surprisingly simple and generalizable approach in which a coordinate transformation – a mathematical process of obtaining a modified set of coordinates by performing some nonsingular operation on the coordinate axes, such as rotating or translating them – is mapped directly onto a concrete one-component microstructure. In addition, the researchers have successfully applied the technique to static elastic–solid mechanics (the elastic and plastic behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains) to a material made of printed polymer. In showing that the approach works in various areas, the researchers evaluated the main concepts of cloaking based on a lattice material, considering only static measurements. “Within these fields, Bückmann notes, “one can cloak in general any kind of physical problem that is linked to the same equations. A few examples in addition to mechanics, as presented in our paper,” he illustrates, “are current conduction, heat conduction, electrostatic potential, magnetostatics, and diffusion.” To underscore the effectiveness of their approach, Bückmann points out that while there were slight differences in the areas tested, in general – depending on the transformation and the given loading conditions – all simulations performed showed a relevant improvement over the case prior to our applying our transformation. “As one tries to cloak a larger and larger hole, or void, in a very thin cloaking shell,” he explains, “the performance of course decreases.” A third obstacle was comparing the average relative standard deviation of the strain vectors outside of the cloaked void with respect to the homogeneous reference lattice as a way of quantifying cloaking quality. “We thought about a way of quantifying the performance of our cloak, and so searched for a good quantity that is actually sensitive and, at the same time, representative for the performance of a cloak. We came up with the differences as a standard deviation between two samples.”Bückmann tells Phys.org that two insights were key to addressing these challenges. “First of all, we found the general concept of a lattice transformation cloak, which is applicable to many different physical quantities. Furthermore, we discovered that the concept also works in mechanics – one of the most demanding fields of physics with regard to cloaking.” This general concept is easy to understand, he points out, and therefore will hopefully help design a range of structures and solve problems in mechanical and engineering science.
Citation: Ancient pestle shows Paleolithic people ground oats for food (2015, September 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-09-ancient-pestle-paleolithic-people-ground.html Interior of Grotta Paglicci, Italy, with wall paintings. Credit: Stefano Ricci Grinding stone from Grotta Paglicci, Italy. Credit: Stefano Ricci. Swollen, gelatinized starch grain from the Paglicci grinding stone. Credit: Marta Mariotti Lippi Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from a variety of institutions in Italy has found evidence of oat grinding by Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers—a stone pestle with bits of grain still intact. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes the stone relic and their study of it and offers some theories on why they believe the early people were grinding grains. In what the researchers describe as the earliest known example of the consumption of oats, the pestle, which was found in Grotta Paglicci (a cave first discovered in the 1950’s) in Southern Italy, represents an attempt by early Europeans to make oat grain more palatable. A closer look at the grain remains on the pestle revealed that they had been heated prior to grinding, a sign of an attempt to dry it before processing, just as is done today. The resulting powder, a type of flour, the group notes, was then likely used to make a type of porridge or perhaps as the main ingredient in a baked bread.The relics at the Grotta site have been dated back to approximately 32,000 years ago and were left by a people known as the Gravettian culture—hunter-gathers that also left behind paintings on cave walls, other works of art, evidence of technology and an elaborate burial system. Heating grains before processing would have made sense, the team notes as the climate was much colder and wetter during that period. They also note that grinding oats into flour would have made it easier to carry as people moved to new locations in search of food and to store it over a long cold winter. © 2015 Phys.org More information: Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P., PNAS, dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1505213112AbstractResidue analyses on a grinding tool recovered at Grotta Paglicci sublayer 23A [32,614 ± 429 calibrated (cal) B.P.], Southern Italy, have demonstrated that early modern humans collected and processed various plants. The recording of starch grains attributable to Avena (oat) caryopses expands our information about the food plants used for producing flour in Europe during the Paleolithic and about the origins of a food tradition persisting up to the present in the Mediterranean basin. The quantitative distribution of the starch grains on the surface of the grinding stone furnished information about the tool handling, confirming its use as a pestlegrinder, as suggested by the wear-trace analysis. The particular state of preservation of the starch grains suggests the use of a thermal treatment before grinding, possibly to accelerate drying of the plants, making the following process easier and faster. The study clearly indicates that the exploitation of plant resources was very important for hunter–gatherer populations, to the point that the Early Gravettian inhabitants of Paglicci were able to process food plants and already possessed a wealth of knowledge that was to become widespread after the dawn of agriculture. Study of grinding stones suggests adaption to ice age may have led to birth of agriculture in China It is not likely that the early people were cultivating the oats—scientists believe farming did not come about till much later—instead, those early people had to walk about looking for specific plants that had the types of grains they could use, gather them together and then grind and store them—a laborious process, but one apparently well worth the effort. They note that other grinding stones dating back to roughly the same time frame have been found before, but they were used to grind roots and cattails—they suspect more study will result in finding that more stones were used to grind grains as well. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Fruit fly brains found to have a ring of cells that work as a compass (2017, May 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-05-fruit-brains-cells-compass.html Journal information: Science PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Explore further © 2017 Phys.org Image: Sliver of Saturn (Phys.org)—A team of researchers with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute has found that a ring of cells in the middle of the fruit fly brain acts as a compass, helping the insect understand where it is, where it has been and where it is going. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team explains how they expanded on research they began two years ago and what their findings may mean for mammal internal navigation. Play A network of neurons in the fly brain acts as the fly’s internal compass. This study uses optogenetics and imaging of calcium activity in these neurons to show how this network of neurons maintains a unique internal representation of the fly’s heading. Credit: S.S. Kim et al., Igor Siwanowicz (title photograph), Bryan W. Jones (setup photograph), and Emily Nielson (video edit) As the researchers point out, their study offers evidence of the purpose of the neural ring, but does not explain how its nerves are activated, or how the fly receives information from the ring and uses it as a navigational aid. They plan to continue their research to see if they can find answers to such questions. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: CC0 Public Domain More information: Sung Soo Kim et al. Ring attractor dynamics in the Drosophila central brain, Science (2017). DOI: 10.1126/science.aal4835AbstractRing attractors are a class of recurrent networks hypothesized to underlie the representation of heading direction. Such network structures, schematized as a ring of neurons whose connectivity depends on their heading preferences, can sustain a bump-like activity pattern whose location can be updated by continuous shifts along either turn direction. We recently reported that a population of fly neurons represents the animal’s heading via bump-like activity dynamics. We combined two-photon calcium imaging in head-fixed flying flies with optogenetics to overwrite the existing population representation with an artificial one, which was then maintained by the circuit with naturalistic dynamics. A network with local excitation and global inhibition enforces this unique and persistent heading representation. Ring attractor networks have long been invoked in theoretical work; our study provides physiological evidence of their existence and functional architecture. As the researchers note, two years ago, they discovered a group of approximately 50 neurons forming a ring in the center of the fruit fly brain that appeared to serve a navigational purpose. Since that time, they have studied how the ring might help the tiny insects make their way around in their environment.To find out, the researchers affixed fruit flies to a metal rod that held them in place and then played virtual reality scenes around them, simulating movement in their natural environment. As a fly moved its wings attempting to fly in the simulated surroundings, the researchers recorded neural activity in the ring. They found that individual clusters in the ring would fire corresponding to the direction in which the fly was trying to move.The researchers then genetically modified some of the neurons in the ring to activate when exposed to light. This allowed the team to manipulate the information the fly was receiving regarding its flight path. Firing light at the cells caused the fly to lose track of itself in its surroundings, strongly suggesting that the team was correct in their belief that the neural ring was similar to a compass. The team also ran similar experiments in which the flies were induced to fly in the dark, and found that though the fly appeared disoriented, it was not clear if it was due to interference by the team or just poor navigational skills in the dark in general.
In a more recent study, on the other hand, Grandey andcolleagues found that Black grocery clerks had to perform more positive facialexpressions to receive ratings of warmth and person-occupation fit that were inline with those of their White coworkers, as measured by evaluations from supervisorsand customers. This disparity in perceived performance may be due racialstereotypes about interpersonal warmth, Grandey says. These professionals are similar to actors in a very long play, Alicia A. Grandey, a professor of psychology at Penn State University, writes in Current Directions in Psychological Science. Employees can respond to these emotional display rules either by deep acting, which leads them to sincerely change their thoughts and feelings, or by surface acting, otherwise known as “faking it.” Performing emotional labor – that is, regulating one’s emotions for a wage – can make for satisfying work when employees are given the freedom to choose how they perform these behaviors, Grandey and colleagues continue. But a review of the research suggests that expecting employees to take a one-size-fits-all approach – expecting them to simply “fake it” for customers or to take every interaction to heart – can quickly lead to burnout and have negative impacts on performance if the right support systems aren’t in place. Hülsheger U. R., & Schewe A. F. (2011). On the costs and benefits of emotional labor: A meta-analysis of three decades of research. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 16, 361–389. “Hiring Smiling Faces” – these kinds of help wanted signsare a common sight in store windows, but offering “service with a smile” isabout more than just showing a few teeth. In addition to regulating theirfacial expressions, cashiers, call center employees, receptionists, busdrivers, and even those professionals who aren’t always seen as fulfillingcustomer service roles, such as nurses and teachers, are often expected toproject a welcoming attitude and maintain a positive, or at least even-tempered,tone while interacting with the most difficult members of the public. “Chronic attempts at deceiving oneself (without changing thesituation) take a toll over time,” Grandey writes. Meeting a workplace’s display rules may not come naturallyto every employee, of course. In these cases, Grandey’s research suggests thatoffering performance-related financial rewards such as raises and tips can helpboost employee’s job satisfaction by giving an external justification forinauthentic behavior. The same study linked deep acting with higher employeeperformance and customer satisfaction. Deep acting is only weakly linked,however, to benefits such as feelings of accomplishment, improved jobsatisfaction, and well-being, Grandey notes, and may be positively linked topsychosomatic symptoms of stress and exhaustion. But it can be difficult for employees to stand up toharassment and other unacceptable conditions when they know their tips are onthe line, making other strategies necessary to help buffer employees againstburnout. These can include providing opportunities for employees, much likeactors, to “develop their craft” by learning to more effectively displayemotions at work, allowing them take breaks after particularly challenging customerinteractions, and fostering a workplace environment in which employees feelsafe venting to their coworkers about negative experiences. Grandey A. A., Chi N.-W., & Diamond J. A. (2013). Show me the money! Do financial rewards for performance enhance or undermine the satisfaction from emotional labor? Personnel Psychology, 66, 569–612. “Most people would prefer to be in charge of our own smiles,”says Grandey. “Putting on that smile to perform one’s work role can havesurprising costs depending on how the emotions are regulated.” A 2011 meta-analysis by Ute R. Hülsheger (MaastrichtUniversity) and Anna F. Schewe (Bielefeld University) of 95 studies involving23,574 participants showed that surface acting was associated with increasedrates of job burnout and physical symptoms of stress. Employees who have tosurface act more often are also more likely to quit their jobs, have troublesleeping, and have greater difficulty regulating alcohol consumption and other behaviorsoutside of the workplace. Grandey, A. A., & Sayre, G. M. (2019). Emotional labor: Regulating emotions for a aage. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 28, 131-137. doi:10.1177/0963721418812771 The costs of engaging in emotional labor aren’t necessarily thesame for everyone, though, and not all employees are held to the same standards.Extroverted people with traits such as positive affectivity and highself-control may be more intrinsically motivated to engage in deep acting andmay be able to engage in surface acting more effectively, as well. Grandey, A. A., Houston, L., & Avery, D. R. (2018). Fake it to make It? Emotional labor reduces the racial disparity in service performance Judgments. Journal of Management. doi:10.1177/0149206318757019 The implications of deep acting for customer service workersaren’t so straightforward either. Surface acting can be stressful when employees have to do it because they’re constantly being monitored by a supervisor, but it can actually help neutralize the stress of emotional labor when employees have the option of faking it to expedite customer interactions, she explains. When employees do have to “fake it ‘til you make it” on a regular basis, however, the feelings of inauthenticity and dissonance created by this emotional labor can have serious implications for well-being. References
The level of investments in domestic shares through participatory notes (P-Notes) declined to Rs 2.5 lakh crore ($39 billion) in November after hitting nearly a 7-year high in the preceding month.According to the data released by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi), the total value of P-Note investments in Indian markets (equity, debt and derivatives) dropped to Rs 2,49,210 crore last month from Rs 2,65,675 crore ($43 billion) in October. Also Read – I-T issues 17-point checklist to trace unaccounted DeMO cashInvestment in October was the highest level since February 2008, when the cumulative value of such investments stood at Rs 3,22,743 crore.P-Notes allow foreign investors to enter markets through registered foreign institutional investors (FIIs) and exempts them from getting registered directly with Sebi. This saves time and costs for investors, but the flip side is that the route can also be used for round tripping of black money.The quantum of foreign institutional investors’ (FII) investments through P-Notes dropped to 11 per cent last month from 12.2 per cent in October. Also Read – Lanka launches ambitious tourism programme to woo Indian touristsTill a few years ago, P-Notes used to account for more than 50 per cent of the total FII investments, but their share has fallen after Sebi tightened the disclosure norms and other regulations for such investments.P-Notes have been accounting for mostly 15-20 per cent of the total FII holdings in India since 2009, while it used to be much higher — in the range of 25-40 per cent — in 2008.It was as high as over 50 per cent at the peak of Indian stock market bull run during 2007.Last month, Sebi directed foreign investors to ensure compliance with all necessary norms before issuing such notes with immediate effect amid concerns about possible misuse of Offshore Derivative Instruments, or P-Notes, for money laundering and other such purposes.
Suspected Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) terrorist Abu Jundal, an alleged mastermind of the 26/11 Mumbai attacks, on Thursday told a Delhi court he should be shifted to the national Capital on completion of trial in an ongoing case in the western metropolis and the case should not be conducted through video-conferencing to enable him consult his lawyer.Jundal, alias Sayed Zabiuddin Ansari, who is lodged in Mumbai’s Arthur Road Jail, was produced before the court in the city through video-conferencing, where he requested the judge that he be shifted to Delhi for proceedings in the case pending in the national Capital. He told District Judge Amar Nath that since trial in the 2006 Aurangabad arms haul case in Mumbai, in which he is also an accused, was nearing an end and he should be brought to Delhi after that so that he can consult his counsel MS Khan. Also Read – Punjab on alert after release of excess water from Bhakra damThe court had last month allowed a plea of the NIA, seeking to conduct the proceedings in the case through video-conferencing after the agency apprehended threat to Jundal’s life. The proceedings in the case, in which NIA had chargesheeted Jundal for allegedly conspiring to carry out terror activities in India, have been stalled since May 2013 as Jundal was not produced before the court in the city.
Kolkata: The state Finance Minister Amit Mitra has been given the charge of the E-Governance department.At the same time, Chandrima Bhattacharya, who was Minister of State (Independent Charge) of E-Governance, has been made the Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the department of Planning and Statistics. Asima Patra has been given the charge of Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the department of Programme Monitoring. At present, Mitra is holding the portfolio of the state Finance minister, department of Industry, Commerce and Enterprises, department of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises and Textiles and department of Information Technology and Electronics. With a notification issued on Friday, Mitra will also be looking after the E-Governance department. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe Mamata Banerjee government has taken a series of steps to ensure e-governance in the state. Almost all departments have been brought under the purview of e-governance and stress was given on e-transactions. It may be recalled that Mitra was given the charge of the Information Technology and Electronics department on October 4. It may be mentioned that earlier, the Personnel and Administrative Reforms and E-Governance departments were together. Now, the E-Governance department has been separated from the Personnel and Administrative Reforms department. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedSimilarly, Planning, Statistics and Programme Monitoring were together under one department. Whereas now, Programme Monitoring is a separate department, with Asima Patra as its Minister of State with Independent Charge. Chandrima Bhattacharya is the Minister of State with Independent Charge of the department of Planning and Statistics. Bhattacharya will also continue as the Minister of State for the state Health department, department of Land and Land Reforms and Refugee relief and Rehabilitation and department of Tribal Development. Meanwhile, Patra will continue as Minister of State for Backward Classes Welfare department, department of Agriculture and department of Fisheries.
Considered a complex hue by many, ultra violet holds loads of potential to jazz up any boring look with the utmost panache. Be it with ethnic styles or with the western look, experimenting with this vibrant colour will make the feminine beauty stand out and create a powerful statement amidst the blacks, reds and whites. The market offers many versatile shades and hues of ultra violet that can easily make their way into the wardrobe and jewellery box, whether in dresses, maxis, ethnic suits, saris or necklaces and jewellery pieces. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfExperts share tips on how to be stylish with trendy colour of 20184Pleated long skirts: Ultra violet pleated long skirts paired with a dull golden choli or a black shirt looks uber elegant and is a perfect option to stand out in the crowd. To add on one can carry a gemstone pendant or silver collar clips of similar shades.4Stripy jumpsuits: Jumpsuits of ultra violet hues striped with black, white, grey or blue will give your outfit a bold look and add that pop which may be missing earlier. Broad stripes, pinstripes, banker stripes are styles to mention a few. To accessorise with them, try the long and sleek danglers with a silver oxidized peppy nose pin. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive4Fringe fever: Fringes are the trend going in all lengths and styles, so whether opting for a fringe overlay or going for the tasselled hems the ultra violet hue as the base will surely add that extra grace to your look in 2018. With ultra violet as the main attraction, silver or platinum pastel coloured thread tassel earrings will complement the look well and will add that alluring charm.4Velvet wonder: Violet is one colour that looks stunning in velvet. Be it in the weddings or the cocktail parties, velvet suits, lehengas, and dresses look trendy and distinctly royal at the same time. An ultra violet velvet outfit with heavy embellishment will work tremendously. Go for a top-to-bottom violet look and break it with gold accessories.4Flared solid trousers: The much hyped 1970s flared solid colour trousers look is again in trend, and this time with even more glamorous allure. A fitted high waist ultra violet trouser with kick flares fastened with a button and zip are perfect.
Kolkata: The Trinamool Congress on Saturday released a new song titled Prothom Vote targeted towards first-time voters, on all its social media platforms. The song comes on the heels of the phenomenal response to the party’s first theme song Maa Mati Manush that was released a few days ago for the Lok Sabha elections.The catchline of the new song Tomar Prothom Vote Banglar Pokkhe Na Bipokkhe, Decision Nao (Take a decision whether your first vote will Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamatabe in favour of Bengal or not) has been penned by Trina-mool Youth Congress president and party MP Abhishek Banerjee. The rest of the lyrics has been written by Bengali rock singer Rupam Islam, who has also composed the music. Interestingly, the video follows the international lyric format, in which animated words appear on screen. The song carries the message that the Lok Sabha elections 2019 will be a significant event in the history of India. It reiterates that when the entire country is in turmoil because of hate and violence, an atmosphere of peace and harmony thrives in Bengal. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateAs depicted through the song, development and not divisive politics gets an upper hand in the state. It states that 60 lakh girls have been empowered by Kanyashree. The scheme, along with Utkarsh Bangla and Sabuj Sathi, has received international recognition. It presents a picture of contrast regarding the employment scenario in Bengal and the country. While unemployment is on the rise across the country, in Bengal youths are being empowered to become self-dependent through schemes likes Gatidhara. The Silicon Valley Hub which is coming up at Rajarhat, is also set to open new avenues of employment generation. “We have urged the first-time voters to ‘take a decision’. Will their vote be in favour of or against Bengal? It is entirely their own discretion. This song makes it easier for them by putting things in perspective. Let their first-vote (prothom vote) be in favour of peace and progress. Let it be in Bengal and India’s favour,” a Trinamool youth leader said. The song assumes special significance as Bengal, with over 20 lakh voters, has the highest number of electors in the 18-19 age group in terms of names registered in the 2019 electoral rolls of the Election Commission of India before the Lok Sabha polls. Murshidabad, with more than 2 lakh names, records the highest registration of teen voters in the state, followed by South and North 24-Parganas and Nadia. The young voters are expected to play a pivotal role in the electoral process. TMC is confident that the song will be able to strike a chord with the young voters, who will cast their first vote (prothom vote). Abhishek Banerjee has appealed to the young generation to popularise the song over the course of the next month, through dance, videos, flash mobs, or any other way they want.
Kolkata: Two city-based doctors and three medical aspirants on Friday have written to the Union Human Resources Development Minister Prakash Javadekar urging him to defer the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) scheduled to take place on May 5 citing various reasons.The doctors have pointed out that the severe cyclone predicted to hit the state late Friday night may have an impact on the people in the costal districts as a result of which the medical aspirants taking the examination will face difficulties in reaching their examination centres. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataIn the rural areas, the candidates have to travel a long way to reach the examination centres. The letter written by Dr Amiya Kumar Maity and Dr Priyanka Maity along with some medical aspirants drew the attention of the minister. They said that it takes around one or two days for the various exam related officials to put in place adequate arrangements for the nationwide examination. But the cyclonic situation will engage the administrative and other officials in the rescue operation. As a result they will not get enough time to make adequate arrangement for the exam. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in state”The cyclone ‘Fani’ that has already hit costal belt of East India created destruction. There is no power in various areas across the coastal states and the lack of availability of basic needs for the candidates. The trains, buses have been restricted and stopped for the cyclone in Bengal and various other states. The guardians are extremely anxious how the students will turn up at the exam centres,” says the letter. The letter also pointed out that the fifth phase of Lok Sabha elections will be conducted on May 6 a day after the NEET scheduled date. Many buses will be withdrawn for transporting the poll personnel. This may serious affect the examination procedure. Dr Amiya Kumar Maity said: “the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test is a nationwide examination. Various states including Andhra Pradesh and Odisha have been seriously hit by the severe cyclone. The candidates may be in jeopardy if the examination is conducted on May 5 as it was scheduled. We urged the Union HRD minister to take up the issue.”
Kolkata: Mystery shrouds the death of an 18-year-old woman whose body was found inside her residence in Malda’s Gajol on Sunday morning.According to the preliminary investigation, the police suspect that the woman had committed suicide by consuming poison. The family members of the victim found her lying unconscious on her bed in the morning. She was immediately taken to Malda Medical College and Hospital where the doctors pronounced her brought dead. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataAccording to the doctors, the victim had consumed insecticides which eventually led to her death. The body of the woman has been sent for the postmortem examination. The police are waiting for the postmortem examination which might throw some light on the cause of her death. The family members of the deceased told the police that the girl’s boyfriend had threatened her that he would upload some of her personal photographs on the social media. The family members also claimed that the girl recently refused to continue the relationship with him. The girl had been under mental depression following prolonged threats by her boyfriend, alleged the family members. Police have started a detailed probe into the incident and they are verifying the statement of the deceased’s family members. The victim’s boy friend will also be interrogated in this connection.
Darjeeling: On the heels of Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee’s Didi Ke Bolo campaign, Gorkha Janmukti Morcha (Binay faction) has come up with a number where the public can lodge complaints.Talking to media persons, Binay Tamang, President GJM stated: “We as an important political party in the Hills have always strived to ensure all round development in the Hills through the GTA. “We have always stressed that all development work (project) have to be upto the mark. We have always maintained transparency. We have vouched for a corruption free GTA and the Hills.” Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataTamang stated that earlier also the GTA had made public a number whereby complaints of sub standard works could be registered. It had evoked immense response. Owing to instant checks, the quality of work improved considerably. “However, we cannot keep tabs on everything. The public have to be proactive. Instead of complaining on social media, they now can complain in this number. We will take immediate action if it is GTA related. If it is state government related we will get in touch with the concerned State Government department,” assured Tamang. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateHe stated that the complaints could be relating to sub standard work, anomalies relating to appointments or anything illegal. It can be against leaders along with the rank and file. However, there should be substantial proof and not just to harass an individual or party. “The number is 6291482120. It is a WhatsApp number where the complaints can be registered,” stated Tamang. He stated soon recruitment of teachers along with Group B, C, D staff would ensue for the GTA. “Appointments will be handed out as per rules and strictly on merit basis. In case of anomalies complaints can be registered,” stated Tamang.
Colin says:Accepting apologies on behalf of LeBron.Staying the course is usually the right move.The Cavs would be crazy to trade Kevin Love.The Jetstream of Anger for the NFL fans.Guests:Grant Wahl – Sports Illustrated soccer writer joins the show to discuss the Copa America, near and long term expectations for soccer in the United States, whether Juergen Klinsmann is unfairly criticized.Mark Medina – Laker beat reporter for the L.A. Daily News looks at who the Lakers will target free agency, the dysfunction of the organization, and who’s calling the shots.Kristine Leahy’s Dad – Professional LeBron hater explains why he’ll never like LeBron no matter what.
Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. 2 min read Register Now » April 15, 2014 It’s been about a year since Google Glass was formally released to a select, invite-only crowd of “Explorers.” Today — and today only! — Google is allowing any shmoe who wants a pair of the computerized glasses to get their uber geek wearable tech fix on. There are a few catches, however. First, and possibly the biggest, is the price tag. Google is still charging $1,500 for each pair of Glass. Even after about 12 months, the cost hasn’t come down. Bummer.The other big thing is the negative stigma. By now you’ve probably heard of “Glassholes.” It’s fairly easy to do some pretty stupid things with smart tech that you wear on your face. You don’t want to be a Glasshole.Related: Google to Make ‘Glass’ Available to the Masses…for One Day Only.But there has been some serious backlash against Glass wearers — especially in tech-heavy San Francisco. The latest: a reporter from Business Insider was assaulted while walking down the sidewalk in San Francisco’s Mission District. A person grabbed the glasses off the reporter’s face and ran off with them before eventually smashing them onto the ground. Not cool. Not cool at all.So, we ask you, is it worth all the money and potential hassle to have a smart pair of glasses on your face? Would you buy Google Glass for $1,500?Heck yeah. You can take pictures, get directions, you name it. They look so cool.Cool? Have you seen those things? The design is awful and makes people look like fools.I’d love a pair but $1,500 is too much to pony up.I’d rather buy a smartwatch and avoid physical abuse from Glass haters.Nah. Glass is little more than a prototype. I’ll wait for something better.VoteView ResultsCrowdsignal.comRelated: Google Gets Defensive About Google Glass ‘Myths’ Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global
4 min read Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global Register Now » It’s probably safe to assume you know that managing information technology (IT) is a critical element of running a successful business. When it comes to IT, one thing you might not be aware of is “hyperconvergence.”In our fast-changing technological landscape, it’s not uncommon to encounter a word such as this and not be completely sure what it means. With many businesses implementing hyperconverged systems, let’s quickly understand what exactly it is.Hyperconvergence defined.During his time as Chief Technology Officer of UK-based VCE, Steve Chambers noticed that businesses were investing a significant amount of time, effort, and money into combining his company’s three products into what technologists call a “virtualization stack.” In other words, companies were buying computers, storage, and networking separately, then trying to bring it all together themselves.Chambers helped introduce the term hyperconvergence to the industry in 2012, with the publication of The Infrastructure Continuum. By combining the three products into one, he and his team thought they could provide better customer service while also making more money.Related: A Well-Trained IT Team: Your Company’s Secret Weapon (Infographic)With hyperconvergence, IT departments purchase everything at once, saving the time and effort they originally put into combining everything. “In one server, you have network, compute, and storage, so it was hyperconverged, and that’s where the phrase came from,” says Chambers, who now serves as CTO of Viewyonder, a U.K.-based tech industry analyst.Reducing inconvenience and cost.IT teams consistently look for ways to simplify their infrastructure, not only to save money but also to make things easier for employees who always have overflowing to-do lists. Scott Lowe is CEO of ActualTech Media, an organization of industry experts who provide surveys, reports and blogs to IT professionals. He says hyperconverged products are a critical resource and by simplifying certain processes, professionals can concentrate on other areas that may have more importance.“One of the primary goals of hyperconvergence is to eliminate the need for separate storage resources,” Lowe says. “And we’re putting that storage into the server container and managing that as a single device rather than multiple devices that we then have to go through and connect together. It eliminates a lot of the complexity and cost in the data center environment.”Related: How to Equip Yourself for the Data-Driven FutureFor businesses interested in switching to hyperconvergence solutions, Lowe advises looking at solutions holistically, choosing solutions that meet their needs while also being scalable.Chambers says there’s generally a lower cost of entry to hyperconverged infrastructure compared to traditional configurations because you can make a smaller initial purchase and then grow it over time. If you’re able to fully replace your old equipment, you may eventually be able to save up to 60 percent of your prior infrastructure costs, he says.Who needs hyperconvergence?The size of your company isn’t the best indicator that you need hyperconverged infrastructure. How fast your company is growing is more important.Chambers recommends researching the pros and cons of each “HC” platform so you can nail down your specific IT needs. Nutanix, SimpliVity and the VCE/VMware divisions of DellEMC are considered top vendors in the space. Publications like Gartner’s Magic Quadrant for Integrated Systems provides detailed information about the outlook for the technology, as well as rating service providers.Related: Check Out These Facepalm-Worthy IT RequestsBudgeting for hyperconvergence.Chambers has found one of the biggest obstacles IT departments face relates to budgeting. When everything is separate, companies budget separately for storage, network equipment, and computers. Prior to moving toward hyperconvergence, Chambers advises thinking carefully about procurement.“It’s an organizational challenge because you’re moving to a new way of spending money,” Chambers says. “You’re going to need someone very senior who can control budgets and say, ‘This is how hyperconvergence works. We’re going to have to rearrange our IT finances.’”Hyperconvergence solutions give IT departments the option of an all-in-one platform, which helps increase efficiency. When professionals can manage everything in one place, they can operate more productively, increasing the time they can put toward other efforts. January 18, 2017
How much do you know about keeping your data and information safe?A new study from Pew Research Center finds that even amid high profile hacks on businesses and institutions that affect millions, many Americans don’t have a comprehensive understanding about what precautions need to be taken to prevent cybersecurity breaches. And perhaps it is unsurprising, but Pew says that “those with higher levels of education and younger internet users are more likely to answer cybersecurity questions correctly.”Of the 1,055 people polled in an online survey in June 2016, 75 percent of adults were able to select the strongest password — no words from the dictionary and is a combination of upper and lowercase letters, numbers and symbols — from a list of four options. And 73 percent know that even if a public Wi-Fi network is password protected, you still should probably wait to pay off your credit card at home instead of in line for a coffee.Related: The Worst Hacks of 2017 — So FarMeanwhile, 54 percent of internet users could ID an example of a phishing attack, and 52 percent were correct in saying that that if you turn off your phone’s GPS function, the device can still be tracked.When it came to questions around encryption, the number of those who got the answers right decreased again. Forty-six percent accurately answered that email is not encrypted by default and that Wi-Fi traffic isn’t encrypted by default on every wireless router.Related: 4 Easy Ways to Protect Your Company From a Cyber AttackAdditionally, 39 percent knew that internet service providers have access to their customers search history even if they are in private browsing mode. And while two-factor authentication is often a first step in preventing breaches, only 10 percent of adults were able to choose the one example of a multi-factor authentication process.For the full survey results, you can head over to the Pew site and test your own knowledge with an interactive quiz that the center has made to accompany the results of the study. Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals 2 min read March 23, 2017 Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Register Now »
Phillip Tracy, Phillip Tracy is a senior writer at Tom’s Guide and Laptop Mag, where he reviews laptops and covers the latest industry news. After graduating with a journalism degree from the University of Texas at Austin, Phillip became a tech reporter at the Daily Dot. There, he wrote reviews for a range of gadgets and covered everything from social media trends to cybersecurity. Prior to that, he wrote for RCR Wireless News and NewBay Media. When he’s not tinkering with devices, you can find Phillip playing video games, reading, listening to indie music or watching soccer. The iPhone 11 won’t be the only Apple product with a three-camera setup. Japanese supply chain source Mac Otakara (via Apple Insider) reported on Saturday that the next iPad Pro will have a triple-lens camera array while a 10.2-inch iPad will come with dual sensors. Mac Otakara is basing its evidence on third-party accessory makers and says that the new iPads will launch in October. MacBook Air vs MacBook Pro: Which 13-inch MacBook Is Right For You?Apple’s entry-level MacBook Air and Pro look pretty similar, but our testing proved they differ in crucial ways.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Which Cheap Tablet Is Best? Amazon Fire 7 vs Walmart Onn02:45关闭选项Automated Captions – en-USAutomated Captions – en-USAutomated Captions – en-US facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.laptopmag.com/articles/apple-ipad-three-lens-camera?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0003:4603:46 As much as we like to take jabs at people for snapping photos with a tablet, the iPad has always been a capable camera replacement. We found in our most recent 12.9-inch iPad Pro review that the 12-megapixel camera on thetablet captures sharp, colorful images. That was with a single lens, with three, the iPad Pro could give the iPhone’s camera a run for its money. Apple updated the iPad Air and iPad mini earlier this year and is expected to launch new iPad and iPad Pro models in the fall. Based on regulatory filings, Apple could unveil two new iPad models at its annual September event. If rumors hold true, these next-gen tablets would be the first iPads with multiple camera sensors. Apple has been using dual sensors in its iPhones for years but even the latest iPad has only a single 8-MP lens while the prosumer-grade iPad Pro has a 12-MP camera. The iPad Pro won’t be the only Apple product with three lenses; The iPhone 11 is also expected to add a third superwide-angle lens, alongside its standard lens and zoom camera. Rumors suggest the extra lens could be used for advanced 3D sensing and stereoscopic vision for improving the iPhone’s augmented reality capabilities. If the iPad Pro receives the same three-camera array as the iPhone 11, then it’s reasonable to expect that it will ship with similar AR capabilities. We’ll likely learn more about the next-gen iPad, iPad Pro and iPhone 11 at Apple’s Special Event in September. iPad Buying Guide: iPad vs iPad Air vs iPad Pro vs iPad miniGalaxy Tab S6 vs iPad Pro: Which Tablet Should You Buy?iPad Pro Keyboard Case Face-Off: Apple vs. Brydge vs. Logitech Phillip Tracy, by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeVikings: Free Online GameIf You Have a Computer, This Strategy Game Is a Must-HaveVikings: Free Online GameUndoKelley Blue Book5 Mid-engine Corvettes That Weren’tKelley Blue BookUndoMayo ClinicManaging psoriatic arthritis painMayo ClinicUndoTODAYCeline Dion Discusses Her Recent Weight Loss: ‘Everything’s Fine’TODAYUndoCNETThe absolute fastest U.S. Air Force planes in the skyCNETUndoVerizon WirelessThis new phone will blow your mind.Verizon WirelessUndoAdvertisement Author Bio
Alternate Directory: delete file types on Windows by Martin Brinkmann on September 18, 2017 in Software – 1 commentAlternate Directory is a free program for Microsoft Windows that you may use to find and delete files of specific types on connected storage devices.The program has been designed to remove unneeded file types, for instance temporary file types or files that are created automatically.Handy to remove thumbs.db or Spotlight V-100 files on removable Flash drives. While you may remove files manually at any time, using software is often more comfortable as you can run the operation on the entire drive or even system.Alternate DirectoryAlternate Directory can be run right after installation. First thing you may want to do after program start is to click on options.The program lists all file types that it scans the selected path or drives for on the options page. Alternate Directory ships with three presets called standard, advanced and critical, and an option to edit the file type listing to add, edit or remove file types manually.Standard is the default preset, and it alone includes several dozen file types that the program will scan the selected path for. Advanced and critical add more file types to the scan, but should be used with care. Critical includes HTML, JPG or XLS file types for instance which you may not want removed from the system.The preferences page lists options to exclude folders from the scan, and to add folders that you want cleared completely whenever the program runs.The remaining options include ignoring write protection, including zero-byte files, and to remember selected folders.The program’s main interface lists several configuration options on top of that. You select the drive and folder that you want scanned, or check to scan all drives, there for instance.Alternate Directory displays delete dialogs and deletes to the recycle bin by default. What you may want to do is select the diagnosis button first once you have configured the path and options displayed there. Diagnosis processes the selected path or paths in simulation mode. The program returns the files that it found during the scan, but won’t delete them in this mode.This is useful to find out how much disk space you would restore when deleting those files, and how many files would be deleted altogether. Diagnosis does not list the files however that will get deleted.You may select the clean drive button afterwards to run another scan, this time however with the option to have matching file types deleted automatically by Alternate Directory.If you did not remove the checkmark from “display delete dialogs”, you will be prompted for each file. This is the safer option, as you get the full file name and path and can decide on a file on file basis whether to keep it or to delete it.Closing WordsAlternate Directory is a specialized program that is well designed for a very specific purpose. Other cleaning programs, CCleaner for instance, support the deletion of select file types as well. If you use those already, you may prefer using the programs that you are using already over using yet another program.Summary12345 Author Ratingno rating based on 0 votes Software Name Alternate DirectoryOperating System WindowsSoftware Category AdminstrationLanding Page http://www.alternate-tools.com/pages/c_directory.php Advertisement